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 崇文英语 - 7年级 2006-5期 Lesson Zone KeyPoints

Units 6-8重点短语句型大集合


(山东临清 严建英)

1. How long have you been in class today?(P 44) 今天你在班里待了多长时间?

辨析:have been in,have been to,have gone to
(1)"have been in"表示一直“待在某个地方”,常与表示一段的状语连用。

【例如】:

They have been in Beijing for two weeks.
他们在上海已经有两个星期了。
How long have you been in this city?
你在这个城市待了多久?

(2)"have been to"表示某人“去过某地,现在已经回来了”,可用于各种人称。

【例如】:

Have you ever been to Shanghai?
你曾经去过上海吗?
He has been to America twice.
他到美国去过两次。

3) "have gone to"表示某人“去某地了”,不论是在途中还是到了目的地,重点是强调这个人已经不在说话人所在的地方了,常用于第三人称。

【例如】:

Henry has gone to London.
亨利到伦敦去了。
My father has gone to Wuhan, and he'll be back this week.
我的父亲去了武汉,这个星期回来。

2. A: So how long have you been playing?
  B: Three and a half years. (P 46)
  A: 那你打了多久?
  B: 3年半了。

含有half的表达方式有两种:“数词+名词(单复数) + and + a half ”和“数词+and +a half +名词(复数)”。

【例如】:

一个半小时: one / an hour and a half
           = one and a half hours
两个半小时: two hours and a half
           = two and a half hours

3. My mom says I have to stop, because we've run out of room to store them. (P 48)
我妈妈说我必须停止收藏,因为我们已经没有地方储存它们了。

1)room在这里是不可数名词,意思是“空间、地方”,相当于space。“make room for sb. /sth.”意为“让出空地方给某人 / 某物”。

【例如】:

Is there enough room / space for me in the car?
汽车里还有我坐的地方吗?
Can you make room on that shelf for more books?
你能在那个架子上腾出地方再放些书吗?

room用作可数名词,意思是“室,房间”。

【例如】:

He is in the next room. 他住隔壁房间。

(2)辨析:run out of与run out
"run out of "意为 “用完了”,表示主动含义,主语一般是人。

He is always running out of money before payday.
他老是发工资的日子还没到就把钱花完了。

"run out" 意为“用完了”,其主语通常为时间、食物、金钱等名词。

His money soon ran out.
他的钱很快就花完了。

4. For a foreigner like me, the more I learn about Chinese history, the more I enjoy living in China. (P 50)  作为像我这样的外国人,我对中国历史了解越多,我就越喜欢住在中国。

1) "the more ..., the more ..."意为“越多……,越多……”。

【例如】:

The more we listen to the teacher, the more we understand.
我们听老师讲得越多,我们就懂得越多。

2)“The + 比较级,the + 比较级”意为“越……,越……”。该句型使用时前半句表示条件,后半句表示结果。

【例如】:

The more carefully you do your homework, the less mistake you will make.
做作业时越仔细,错误越少。
The more, the better. 多多益善。
The higher, the colder.  海拔越高,气温越低。

5. People don't usually like to be criticized, so we have to be careful how we do this. (P 58) 通常人们是不喜欢受到批评的,所以我们得留意我们的处理方式。

句中"be careful"意为“小心、当心”,常与of连用。
(1) be careful of +名词(或名词性短语)

【例如】:

Be careful of fire!  小心火灾!
You should be careful of your health.
= You should take good care of your health.

你应当保重你的健康。

2) be careful of + 从句

【例如】:

The girl is careful of what she does.
这个女孩对她的所作所为很小心。
Next, you must be careful of how you do it.
今后,如何做这件事一定要谨慎小心。

6.Even if you are with your friends, it is better to keep your voice down in public places. (P 58) 即使你和朋友在一起,在公共场所最好还是小点声。
Although rules of etiquette can often be different, some rules are the same almost everywhere in the world! (P 58)尽管礼节方面的规则常常会有所不同,但有些规则几乎在世界的每一个地方都是相同的!

以上两句都是让步状语从句。
1) "even if"意为“即使,纵然,尽管”,与"even though"同义。

【例如】:

Even if / though he is no longer living, his spirit lives on today.
使他已不在人世,他的精神却至今还存在。

(2) "although / though"意为“尽管,虽然”。

【例如】:

I didn't catch the bus, although I started early.
尽管我出发很早,但还是没有赶上车。

汉语中表示转折的关联词有“虽然……但是……”,“尽管……却……”,但在英语中,表示转折时,although / though, even though与but不能出现在同一句式中。以上句子是带有让步状语从句的复合句,其中although为从句的引导词。也可以表达为:

I started early, but I didn't catch the bus.

7. Now she's too big to sleep in the house, so I made her a special pig house. (P 64)
现在她太大了,不能睡在这个房子里了,所以专门为她建了个猪舍。

"too... to..."句式常用于否定意义,意为“太……以致不……”,其中too是副词,用来修饰形容词,to是动词不定式符号。

【例如】:

He is too young to go to school.
他年龄太小,不能上学。

1)当too前带有not或never时,构成句型"not / never too ... to ...",含有“会/能做……”的意思。

It's never too late to learn. 活到老,学到老。

2)当不定式前带有not时,构成句型"too ... not to ...",表示“太……不会不……”的意思,这里的not修饰不定式。

【例如】:

Mary is too careful not to have noticed it.
玛丽太细心了,不会注意不到这一点。

(3)当句中的主语与不定式有逻辑动宾关系时,不定式后不能接宾语。

【例如】:

Tom spoke too quickly for us to understand.
汤姆讲得太快了,我们听不懂。

4)当句中的主语与不定式有逻辑动宾关系,而不定式又是不及物动词时,要加相应的介词。

【例如】:

The house is too small for the family to live in.
房子太小,以致于家里人住不下。

(5)中考对这一知识点的考查常以句型转换形式出现。
如与"so ... that ..."结构互为转换。在解题过程中特别要注意第(3)点中所提到的。

【例如】:

The little boy walked so fast that his parents couldn't catch up with him.
The little boy walked too fast for his parents to catch up with.
这个小男孩走得太快了,他父母跟不上。

再如与在"not+ adj. / adv. enough to"结构互为转换,此时enough为副词。当它修饰形容词或副词时,需放在被修饰词的后面。可将其中的形容词或副词替换为反义词,再用"too ... to ..."句式表达,而句意不变。

【例如】:

The room isn't big enough for us to live in.
这间房子我们住不够大。
 The room is too small for us to live in.
这间房子我们住太小了。

8.For example, twenty-four young singers from across China entered a contest by singing popular English songs. (P 66) 例如,二十四名来自全中国的年轻歌手参加了一个比赛,演唱英语流行歌曲。

(1) "from across China"指“来自全中国”,相当于"from all over China",其中的across指“在……境内,在……全境”。

【例如】:

These measures have been taken in a few places across the USA.
这些措施已经被美国境内一些地方采用了。

"from across"还可用于表示“从……的那一边”,此时across 指“在(街道,河流等)另一边”。

【例如】:

I saw him crying from across the street.
我看见他在街道的那一边哭泣。

(2)by在这里用来构成介词短语,说明手段或方式,可以理解为“通过,以”等,其后可以使用名词,也可以使用v-ing作宾语。

【例如】:

You have to show your idea by action.
你必须用行动来表明自己的观点。
We are helping to save ourselves by helping them.
过帮助他们,我们也在帮助挽救我们自己。

9.If not, why don't you find out about it? (P 66) 如果你从未听说过“京城说英语”节目, 你何不去了解一下它的情况呢?

1)这里的"if not"为一省略形式。原句应为"If you have never heard of the Beijing Speaks English program",因为大部分内容与上文重复,所以省去了。类似的结构很多。

【例如】:

If necessary, I will go there to give a speech.
= If it is necessary, I will go there to give a speech.
如果有必要,我会到那里作一次演讲。
If so, there is nothing to regret.
= If the matter is so, there is nothing to regret.
果事情是这样的话,就没有什么可遗憾的了。

(2)“Why don't you +动词原形+其他?”是英语中一个很常见的句型,在表示强烈建议时使用,意为“你为什么不……呢?”

【例如】:

Why don't you turn on the light? It's so dark here!
你为何不开灯呢?这里好黑呀!
Why don't you call the police? They may give you help.
你为何不给警察打电话呢?他们可能会给你提供一些帮助。


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