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 崇文英语 - 8年级 2006-5期 Lesson Zone GrammarExpress

现在完成时入门床关


(江苏兴化 苏 扬)

★第一关:构成关

1. 肯定句:由“主语+have / has+过去分词+其他”构成。例如:

We have seen that film. 我们已经看过那部电影了。

该句式中的have或has是助动词,has用于主语第三人称单数,其他人称一律用have。译成汉语时,往往译为“已经”、“刚刚”、“过”或“了”等。
2. 否定句:由“主语+have / has +not+过去分词+其他”构成。have, has与not可以分别缩写为haven't和hasn't。例如:

I haven't seen him these days. 这些天我没有看见他。

3. 一般疑问句:由“Have / Has+主语+过去分词+其他”构成。肯定回答:"Yes, 主语+have / has.";否定回答:"No, 主语+haven't / hasn't."。例如:

一般疑问句:Have you ever made cakes? 你做过蛋糕吗?
肯定回答:Yes, I have. 是的,我做过。
否定回答:No, I haven't. 不,我没做过。

★第二关:用法关

1. 现在完成时表示过去发生或已完成的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果。也就是说,现在完成时虽然其动作发生在过去,但实际上看重的是对现在的影响或结果。例如:

I have closed the door. 我把门关上了。(实际是:The door is closed now.)
She has left already. 她已经离开了。(实际是:She isn't here now.)

2. 现在完成时还可以表示从过去开始、一直延续到现在的动作或状态。例如:

We have lived here for about 30 years. 我们已在这儿住了30年。

★第三关:标志关

与现在完成时连用的单词或短语有:already, just, yet, ever, never, before, once, twice, recently, these days, since, for, in the past few days / weeks / months / years等。例如:

We have already visited the Great Wall. 我们已经参观过长城了。
He hasn't known this news yet. 他还不知道这个消息。
They have waited here for about two hours. 我们已经在这儿等了大约两个小时了。
She has seen this film before. 她以前看过这部电影了。

already, just多用于肯定句;yet, ever, never多用于疑问句和否定句。例如:

He has just had his meal.  他刚吃过饭。
Have you ever read this story?  你看过这个故事了吗?

★第四关:区别关

1. "have / has gone to"与"have / has been to"的用法区别。
"have / has gone to"意为“到某地去了”,可能在途中,也可能已经到达了目的地;"have / has been to"意为“去过某地”,现在已经回来了;"have / has been in"意为“在某地停留了(多久)”,常常与表示一段时间的状语连用。例如:

Mr Hunt has gone to England.
亨特先生去英国了。

当"have / has been to"后接地点副词时,to应去掉。例如:

I have been here for two months.
我来这儿已经两个月了。

2. 表示短暂动作的动词与延续性动词的不同运用。
这两种动词都可用于现在完成时中。表示短暂动作的动词所代表的动作是在瞬间就完成的,因此不能与表示一段时间的状语连用。常见的这类动词有come, go, leave, start, become, die, buy, borrow, reach, arrive等。
延续性动词表示动作发生在过去,而且一直延续到现在,它们可以和表示一段时间的状语连用。常见的这类动词有stay, live, teach, learn, work, sleep, read等。它们常与for短语,since短语或从句连用。例如:

他父亲去世三年了。
His father has died for three years.
His father died three years ago.
It is three years since his father died.
Three years has passed since his father died.
His father has been dead for three years.

 某些表示短暂动作的固定短语在否定句中可以与表示一段时间的状语连用。例如:

The boy hasn't fallen asleep since his father came back.
这个男孩从他父亲回来就没有睡着。

★中考传真:单项选择。

1. —     you     breakfast?
 — Yes, I had it at 6:30. (2005年常州市)
 A. Had, had   B. Have, had
 C. Are, having  D. Were, having
2. The "Thousand-hand Guanyin"     by many people as the best performance at CCTV's Spring Festival Evening. (2005年徐州市)
 A. has been regarded
 B. are regarded
 C. has regarded
 D. regards
3.—     my mobile phone?
  — Yes, I saw it on your desk a moment ago.                    (2005年无锡市)
 A. Do you see   B. Would you see
 C. Have you seen  D. Had you seen
4. — How long     you     here?
 — For about two years so far.
                     (2005年河南省)
 A. have, studied  B. did, live
 C. do, stay     D. were, swimming

5. Great changes     in China since 1978.                   (2005年贵州省)
 A. was happened
 B. have happened
 C. have been happened
 D. happened
6. —     you     China for a long time?
 — Yes, I came here three years ago.                         (2005年四川省)
 A. Have, come to
 B. Did, come to
 C. Have, been in
7. "The World Without Thieves" is a very moving film. I     it twice already.
                    (2005年陕西省)
  A. will see    B. see
  C. saw      D. have seen
8. —     you     a ticket for the football match?
 — Not yet.           (2005年福州市)
 A. Is, bought    B. Are, bought
 C. Has, bought   D. Have, bought

9. — When did you join the League?
 — Last year. I _____ a league member for one year.              (2005年青海省)
 A. was B. became
 C. have been
10. — Is Runyang Bridge open to the public yet?
   — Yes. It     for almost one and a half months.              (2005年扬州市)
 A. has opened   B. has being opened
 C. has been open  D. was open
11. It's almost eight years     we saw each other last time. (2005年宁夏回族自治区)
 A. before     B. since
 C. after      D. when
12. Mr Huang     to Kunming. He'll come back in two weeks. (2005年广西桂林市)
 A. goes    B. went
 C. has gone  D. go
13. —     you ever     to Beijing?
   — Yes, I went there last year.
                     (2005年海南省)
 A. Have, been  B. Have, gone
 C. Did, go   D. Are, going


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