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 崇文英语 - 8年级 2006-3期 Lesson Zone KeyPoints

Units 1-3 易混词语对对碰


(湖北武汉 马晓燕)

Unit 1

1.in 与after

in是指以现在时间为起点的“在一段时间以后”, 也可以表示“在……期间”, 句中的谓语动词要用一般将来时态。

【例如】:

He will be back in two days.
他两天以后回来。
He was born in 1990.
他出生在1990年。

after 常常指以过去时间为起点的 “在一段时间之后”, 所以它与过去时态连用。当after指某个特定的未来时刻或日期之后,或指以将来某一时间为起点的若干时间之后时,它可以与将来时态连用 。

【例如】:

He started on Sunday and arrived in Beijing after three days.
他星期天动身,三天后到达北京。
I'll be free after Friday.
我星期五之后有时间。
He'll be back after three o'clock.
他三点之后回来。

2.like 与as

like和as 都有“像……”的意思,但用法有所不同:like后通常跟名词或代词;as后通常跟一个句子。

【例如】:

We should do as Comrade Lei Feng did.
我们应该像雷锋同志那样去做。
He likes animals like monkeys, eleph
ants and pandas and so on.
他喜欢动物, 像猴子,大象、熊猫等。

Unit 2

3.borrow 与lend

borrow 是指向别人借东西,即 “借入”;lend是指把东西借给别人,即 “借出”。 borrow常用的句型是 borrow sth. from sb.向某人借某物;lend常用的句型是 lend sth. to sb.把某物借给某人。

【例如】:

I borrow books from the library every month.
我每个月都从图书馆借书。
Do you often lend storybooks to him?

你常借给他故事书吗?

另外: lend sth. to sb.也可用lend sb. sth. 来表示。

【例如】:

Can you lend your bike to me?
= Can you lend me your bike?
你能把自行车借给我用一下吗?

4.either, too 与also

either, too, also这几个词在句中作副词用时,都作 “也”讲,但是用法却不相同:
either只能用于否定句,并且要置于句末。其前通常用逗号,其后用句号。

【例如】:

My mother hasn't been to Beijing. My father hasn't been there, either.
母亲没有去过北京, 我父亲也没有去过。

too一般用于肯定句,通常置于句末,有时亦可插入句子中间,在中间时,前后都用逗号。

【例如】:

That woman is a teacher, too.
那个女人也是一个老师。
I, too, have been to London.
我也去过伦敦。

also在用法上比较正式,一般用于肯定句,在句中的位置应是靠近动词而不放在句子末尾。

【例如】:

We also play football.
我们也踢足球。

Unit 3

5.when与while

when是指“当(在)……时”,可表示一段时间,又可表示某一时刻。主、从句所表示的动作或事情,可有先后地发生。
while是指“正当(正在)……时”(指同时),用于同时进行的两个延续动作相伴发生,常对同类的两动作进行对比,while从句中动词须用延续性动词。

【例如】:

It was snowing when we got to the airport.
我们到机场时,天正下着雪。
Some students were reading while others were writing.
有些学生在读,而有些学生在写。

6.others, the others, the other与another

other和 some 对比使用时,是 “有些”的意思,而不是作 “其他”讲。

【例如】:

Some cleaned the windows, others wiped the floor.
有的擦窗户,有的擦地板。

the others 意为“其余的”,表示在一个范围内的其他全部。

【例如】:

This dictionary is better than the others.
这本字典比别(其余)的好。

the other 表示“两者中的另一个。”

【例如】:

Give me the other one, not this one.
给我那一个,不是这一个。

两个中的“另一个”用“the other”,泛指另一个用“another”。

【例如】:

This glass is broken. Get me another.
这个杯子坏了, 给我再拿一个来。(在许多杯子中的一个)

1. live to be ... years old 活到 …… 岁
2. free time 闲暇时间
3. be in primary school 上小学
4. be in middle school 上中学
5. be in high school 上高中
6. be in college 上大学
7. have / keep a pet 养宠物
8. space station 太空站
9. fall in love with 爱上
10. be able to 能够……
11. dress casually 穿着随意
12. job interview 工作面试
13. fly to the moon 飞往月球
14. come true 实现(梦想)
15. be used by sb. 被某人使用
16. science fiction movies 科幻片
17. in the future 未来
18. help with 帮助做某事
19. wake up 唤醒
20. over and over again 一遍又一遍
21. look for 寻找
22. look like 看起来像……
23. electric toothbrushes 电动牙刷
24. play one's CD loud 大声放CD
25. argue with sb. 与某人争论
26. in style 时尚
27. out of style 过时
28. call sb. up 打电话给……
29. pay for 付款
30. summer camp   夏令营
31. have a bake sale 卖烧烤食品
32. get a tutor 请指导老师
33. sports clothes 运动衣
34. be angry with sb. 生某人的气
35. have a fight with sb.  与某人打架
36. give sb. advice   给某人出主意
37. under pressure   承受压力
38. complain about   抱怨
39. on the phone   打电话
40. at barber's / doctor's 在理发店 / 诊所
41. get out of 从……出来
42. take off 起飞
43. jump down 跳下
44. cut one's hair 理发
45. in silence 静静地
46. take place 发生
47. in more recent times 近期
48. World Trade Center 世界贸易中心
49. a national hero    民族英雄
50. ask sb. for sth. 请求某人要……

51. find out  找出;发现;查明
52. take sb. to 把某人带到某地
53. fit ... into ...   把……装入……

54. send ... to ...  把……送到……
55. think about 想起;考虑;回想
56. have meaning to 对……有意义
57. study at home on computer  在家中电脑上学习

58. see ... do / doing sth.    看见……做了(在做)某事
59. leave sth. + 介词短语     把……忘在……
60. get on well with sb.   与某人友好相处
61. after-school activities   课外活动
62. compare ... with ...    把……和……比较
63. on the one hand ... on the other hand    一方面……另一方面……

64. win the gold medal / World Cup / award    获金牌 / 世界杯 / 奖
65. important events in history    历史上的重要事件

66. Beijing International Airport    北京国际机场

1. There will be more people / fewer cars / less pollution. 将有更多的人 / 更少的车 / 更少的污染。

句中more是many、much的比较级。

【例如】:

more books / more money
更多的书籍 / 更多的钱

more既可以修饰可数名词,又可以修饰不可数名词。
fewer意为“更多的”,是few的比较级,修饰可数名词。

【例如】:

I have fewer books than you.
我的书比你的书更少。

less意为“更少的”,是little的比较级,修饰不可数名词。

【例如】:

There is less milk in this bottle than in that one.
瓶子里的牛奶比那瓶的牛奶更少。

2. I argued with my best friend. 我和我最好的朋友吵了架。

(1) argue with sb. about / over sth. 意为“与某人争论某事 ”。

【例如】:

He argued with me about the matter.
他同我争辩这件事。

(2) argue sb. into / out of doing sth. 意为“ 说服某人做 / 不做某事 ”。

【例如】:

They argued him into joining them.
他们说服了他加入他们。

3. Maybe you should call him up. 也许你应当给他打电话。

(1) call sb. up 意为“给某人打电话”,当宾语是人称代词时,一定要放在call和up之间。

【例如】:

Please call me up if you get to Shanghai.
如果你到达上海,请给我打电话。

类似的短语有:pick up 拾起,捡起;write down 写下,记下; turn on 打开; put on 穿上等。
(2) 表示“给某人打电话”的短语很多:
telephone / call / phone / ring sb.
ring / call sb. up
give sb. a ring / call
make a telephone / call。

4. I need to get some money to pay for summer camp. 我需要一些钱为去夏令营用。

(1) need to do sth. 意为“需要做某事”。

【例如】:

Do I need to go there now?
我现在需要去那儿吗?

(2) pay (some money) for sth. 意为“为…… 付钱;赔款……”。

【例如】:

I paid five yuan for this pen.
这支钢笔我花了五元钱。

5. No, he doesn't have any money, either. 不,他也没有钱。

either意为“也”,用于否定句句末。

【例如】:

I don't know him, either.
我也不认识他。

要注意 too, also, as well也可以表示“也”,用法如下:

too用于肯定句、疑问句末。

【例如】:

He is a farmer, too.
他也是一个农民。

also用于肯定句、疑问句中。

【例如】:

We also went to the zoo last Sunday.
上个星期天我们去了动物园。

as well, 用于肯定句、疑问句句尾。

【例如】:

He gave me some advice and gave me some money as well.
给了我一些建议也给了我一些钱。

6. Everyone else in my class was invited except me. 我班上的其他人都被邀请了,除了我以外。

(1) else意为“其他的”,修饰不定代词或疑问词,并放在不定代词或疑问词之后;other也表示“其他的”,但它修饰名词,并放在名词之前。

【例如】:

What else will you say?
你还有别的什么要说吗?

(2) except, 介词, 表示“除了……以外”。

【例如】:

We go to school every day except Sunday and Saturday.
除了星期六和星期天以外,我们每天都上学。

7. I'm very upset and don't know what to do. 我很苦恼,不知道做什么。

(1) upset 在这里作形容词用,意为“心烦的,苦恼的”。

【例如】:

I became very upset when heard the news.
当我听到这个消息时,我很心烦的。

upset还可作动词用,意为“打翻,弄翻,倾覆”。

【例如】:

Don't upset the boat.
不要把船弄翻了。

(2) what to do意为“做什么”,疑问词与不定式连用构成不定式短语。

【例如】:

I don't know where to go.
我不知道去哪儿。

8. Parents see other children doing a lot of things, and they feel their own children should do the same. 很多父母看到其他的孩子做很多事,他们就觉得自己的孩子应当做同样多的事。

(1) see sb. doing sth. 意为“看见某人正在做某事”。

【例如】:

I saw them playing football at 4:00 yesterday afternoon.
天下午四点钟,我看到他们正在踢足球。

see sb. do sth. 意为“看见某人做(过)某事”。

【例如】:

I saw him go out just now.
刚才我看见他出去了。

(2) own意为“自己的”,作形容词往往与物主代词连用,以便加强语气。

【例如】:

Why don't you use your own bike?
你为什么不使用自己的自行车?

own还可以作动词, 是“拥有, 具有”的意思。

【例如】:

Which of these things would you like to own?
你想拥有这些东西中的哪一个?

9. At around ten o'clock in the morning, I was walking down the street when a UFO landed right in front of me. 大约早上十点,我正在街上走着,一个不明飞行物正好落在我面前。

(1) around意为“大约, 附近”,作副词,同义词是about。

【例如】:

It's around six o'clock.
现在大约是6点。

(2) right意为“正好,恰好”,作副词。

【例如】:

Put it right in the middle.
把它放在正中间。

(3) in front of意为“在……前面”(在整体之外的前面)。

【例如】:

There is a big tree in front of my house.
我家房前有一棵大树。

要注意in front of 和in the front of 的区别:in the front of 意为“在……的前部”(在某物体整体的前部)。

【例如】:

There is a blackboard in the front of the classroom.
教室的前面有一块黑板。

10. While Linda was buying a news-paper at the train station, the dog got out of his box and ran away. 当琳达正在火车站买报纸时,狗从箱子里跑出来逃跑了。

(1) get out of 意为“从……里面出去”。

【例如】:

Don't get out of the lift now, it's dangerous.
现在别从电梯里出去,很危险的。

由get 构成的短语有:
get into进入…… get on上(车) get off下(车) get up 起床 get together 团聚在一起 get home到家 get to 到达…… get away设法离开 get back回来
(2) run away意为“ 逃走;流失”。

【例如】:

When the police got there, the thief ran away.
当警察抵达时,小偷已经逃走了。

11. What happened while Linda was on the telephone? 当琳达在打电话时,发生了什么事?

happen意为“发生”,不及物动词,同义词是take place。

【例如】:

The story happened on a cold winter evening.
个故事发生在一个寒冷的冬天的晚上。

happen还可接不定式: happen to do sth. “碰巧做某事”。

【例如】:

I happened to meet my old friend on the road just now.
才在路上我碰巧遇到了一位老朋友。

我的基本情况

我是助动词中的一员,没有人称和数的变化,适用于所有人称,我在句子中不能独立作谓语,只能和主要动词一起合作,我身后的动词都用原形。

【例如】:

They will finish the work next month.
下个月他们将完成这项工作。

另外,还需注意:我的助手shall只能用于第一人称。遭到否定时,在will / shall后加not;遇到质疑时,则把will / shall提前。

【例如】:

I won't be careless from now on.
从现在起我不会再粗心大意了。
Shall we go to the park tomorrow?
我们明天去公园好吗?

熟知我的人常这样来概括我:

  动词一般将来时,表示将要发生事;
  谓语动词要记清,will(shall)加原形;
  变否定较简单,will(shall)之后not添;
  若变一般疑问句,will(shall)移句前。

我的同胞兄弟

“be going to+动词原形”同样表示将来,其用法略有不同,一般表示按计划或要求近期“打算、准备”做某事。例如:

I am going to see my grandfather tomorrow. 我打算明天去看望我的祖父。

提问时,要将be提到句首(与be作系动词的用法相同);否定时,要在be后加not。例如:

Are you going to visit the Great Wall next month? 下个月你打算去参观长城吗?
She isn't going to join the party this Saturday. 她不打算参加本周六的晚会。

人们常这样来概括我的同胞兄弟:

be going to+动词原形,一般口语多常见;
准备、计划或打算,be有人称和数的变化。
使用它,要注意,疑问形式be前提;
否定句,更简单,not放在be后边。

不可把“位移动词”go, come, leave, start等用于“be going to”结构中,而常用现在进行时形式表示按计划、安排即将发生的动作。例如:

Are you going by water or by air? 你们将乘船还是乘飞机去?

1. The boys are going to     in London next Sunday.

A. are B. is
C. go D. be

2. Daniel      here next week and will stay here for three days.

A. is coming B. came
C. comes D. will come

3. — Who      at the meeting?
  — Our English teacher is, I think.

A. will speaking
B. is going to speak
C. speaks
D. are going to speak

4. There      a football match on TV this afternoon.

A. is going to have B. will be
C. is going to play D. will play

5. I'm going shopping now. I      home soon.

A. returned B. will be back 
C. came back D. going back

6. She's going to take her son to school. (改为否定句)
 She                     her son to school.
7. I will bring you some food. (改为一般疑问句)
           bring me some food?
8. Where are you going next week? (改为同义句)
 Where       you       next week?

Keys: 1-5 DABBB    6. isn't going to take    7. Will you    8. will, go

enough是个兼类词,它可以用作形容词、副词或名词。
一、enough作形容词用时,意思是“足够的,充分的”,通常用于修饰名词。enough修饰名词时一般趋向于放在所修饰的名词前,也可以放在后面,但现代英语中不常用。例如:

We have enough time to do our homework.
我们有充足的时间做家庭作业
There is room enough for 30 people to live here. 这儿有足够30人住的地方。

enough置于所修饰的名词之后,句意和语气不如enough置于名词前时强烈。
enough用于系动词be之后时,如果单独作表语,那么主语多为代词that或it,即enough在这种情况下不宜用于主语为名词的句子里。例如:

That's enough. 这就够了。

二、enough作副词用时,有“足够地,充分地;相当地,还可以”等意思。
1. enough 修饰形容词、副词或动词时应放在被修饰词的后面,通常表示程度,意思为“足够地,充分地”。例如:

The boy is old enough to go to school.
这个男孩到上学的年龄了。
I know him well enough. 我非常了解他。
He didn't get up early enough to catch the early bus. 他起床不够早,没有赶上早班车。

2. enough 表示“相当地,还可以”,用来修饰形容词、副词,相当于very, quite等。例如:

She sings well enough.= She sings very well.
她唱得相当好。

3. enough 可用于“It's ... enough for ... to do sth.”结构中,也可以用于“It's ... enough that ...”这种句子结构中。例如:

It isn't low enough for me to touch.
那不够低,我摸不着。

三、 enough作名词时,意思是“足够(的数量或数目)”,可以作主语和宾语。例如:

Enough is as good as feast. 知足者常乐。
I've had enough, thank you.
我已经吃够了,谢谢你。

们在使用enough时,还需要注意以下几点:
1. enough不能与no连用。例如:

不可以说:I have no enough money to buy a car.
应说:I don't have enough money to buy a car.

2. enough用作形容词时不可被very修饰,但可以用quite修饰。例如:

We have quite enough time.
我们有足够的时间。

3. can't / can never ... enough表示“越……越好;无论怎样……也不过分”。例如:

You can never be careful enough.
你越细心越好。
We can't thank him enough.
我们无论怎样感谢他也不过分。

[No. 1难点] 如何准确判断何时使用该时态。

判断一个句子是否用过去进行时,主要有三种依据:

依据典型的时间状语有: at nine o'clock; last night; at this / that time yesterday; from 7 to 10 yesterday morning; the whole evening 等。
②晓知两个常见的句型:
a. 在句型“主语+was / were + V-ing + when + 主语 + V-ed”中, 表示“短”时间的动作用V-ed; 表示时间“长”的动作用“was / were + V-ing”。

【例如】:

The students were reading when the teacher came in.

b. 在句型“主语 + V-ed / was (were) + V-ing + while + 主语 + was / were + V-ing”中,由于while只能用于指一段时间,所以从句中的谓语动词必须是延续性动词,用过去进行时;而主句中的谓语动词如果是延续性的,则用过去进行时,如果是短暂性的,用一般过去时。

【例如】:

While I was watching TV, my sister was doing her homework.
(watch和do都是延续性动词,故都用过去进行时)
While my mother was cooking, the telephone rang.
(ring是短暂性动词, 故用一般过去时)

根据上下文的语境来确定动词的时态,是近年各类考试中命题的热点。

【例如】:

— You were out when I dropped in at your house.
Oh, I was waiting for a friend from Nanjing at the train station.

[No. 2 易混点]一般过去时与过去进行时的不同点。

一般过去时与过去进行时是极易混淆的两种时态,要想准确地了解它们的区别,可以从以下几个方面进行比较。
① 时间状语不同
过去进行时常见时间状语在上面已作归纳,而一般过去时的典型时间状语有:yesterday (morning, afternoon, evening), last night(week, year等),an hour ago, the day before yesterday, in 1999, long long ago等。
② 强调动作的角度不同
一般过去时强调动作的“发生”或状态的“存在”;而过去进行时强调动作“正在进行”的延续性。试体会:

I got up at six this morning. 
今天早晨我六点钟起床。
My mother was doing some washing the whole day last Sunday.
上周日我妈妈一整天都在洗衣服。

③ 动词特点不同
静态动词只用于一般过去时,不用于过去进行时。这类动词常见的有:
(1)表示感觉的动词,如:feel, hear, see, smell, taste等。
(2)表示状态、感情的动词,如:be, hate, love, like等。
(3)表示心理活动的词,如:remember, understand等。
(4) 表示所属关系的动词,如:own, belong等。
一般过去时的谓语动词既可用延续性动词,也可用非延续性动词;而过去进行时的谓语动词只能用延续性动词。
④ 情感不同
一般过去时是对过去事实的客观描述,语气比较客观、肯定;过去进行时有时也可表示赞美、厌烦等情绪,带有描绘性和感情色彩。试体会:

My father came home late. 
我父亲回来得很晚。(说明客观事实)
My father was always coming home late. 
我父亲总是很晚才回来。
(带有埋怨情绪,指责某人的一贯行径)

I. 用括号内所给动词的适当形式填空。

1. — What      you      (do) at six this morning?
  — I      (water) those trees in the garden.
2. Yesterday I      (write) a letter to my brother. I      (write) a letter to Kate next week.
3. — What      Peter      (do) at this time yesterday?
  — He      (play) football with Simon.
4. My mum      (cook) supper when I got home yesterday.
5. Last night Grandma      (tell) us a story before we      (go) to bed.
6. Those boys      (listen) to American pop songs from seven to nine last Monday morning.

II. 单项选择,选择最佳答案。

1. We      TV when the telephone     .

A. watching, was ringing                     B. were watching, rang
C. watch, rings                          D. are watching, rang

2. The Reads      lunch when I got to their house.

A. were having B. was having C. are having D. is having

3. When I got to the factory, the workers      about the film.

A. are talking B. talked C. were talking D. have talked

4. What was Jim doing      the teacher came in?

A. while         B. and           C. when         D. but

5. I didn't think Simon saw me, he      a sweater for his brother.

A. just chose      B. was just choosing       C. has just chosen     D. had just chosen

You should be careful in the giving of gifts. Never give a gift in a job interview or prior to a business meeting. Gifts are usually given during special holidays, or as "thank you" for special invitations or events.
At the time of arriving to a special event or social gathering, you may present your gift to the host once the introductions are made. With gift giving, a few rules are in order:
Be modest with your gift, do not buy expensive or extravagant (奢侈的) gifts.
Perishable gifts (a special food from your country, a bottle of wine, candy, flowers) are best if you do not personally know the host very well, but be certain that your gift will not require immediate
attention. Your host will be very busy, and you should avoid adding another task to his or her evening. You can usually say something like, "I thought you would like this a little later" when you offer your gift.
Be careful of giving alcohol(含酒精的饮料), a bottle of wine is usually all right if you know your host drinks wine, but hard liquor (whisky, scotch, etc.) should only be given as gifts only when you know the host and are certain that they would welcome such a gift.
Flowers are good, but remember: roses are for personal relationships. Do not give roses. Cut flowers are nice if they are in a vase.
A small cultural gift from your country is usually very appropriate.
Make certain your gift is packaged nicely, with a nice card attached to it.


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