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 崇文英语 - 8年级 2006-4期 Lesson Zone GrammarExpress

六变三加三不变 巧妙突破两引语


(江苏南通 袁志军)

一字不改地直接引述别人的话,并把它放在引号内,这叫做直接引语;用自己的话转述别人的话,则称之为间接引语。直接引语和间接引语之间的转化是现行教材中的重点,也是同学们学习时遇到的难点。如果同学们掌握了直接引语在转变为间接引语中的“六变”、“三加”和“三不变”规则,那么突破该语法难点就很轻松了。

先请同学们看看“六变”的相关内容

一、变动词

1. 一般说来,如主句谓语动词是“said to”,直接引语部分是陈述句,变为间接引语时,要变为told,如直接引语部分是一般疑问句或特殊疑问句,则要变为asked。例如:

He said to me, "I'm sixteen years old." → He told me he was sixteen years old.
Simon said to me, "What do you find hardest in English?"
→ Simon asked me what I found hardest in English.

2. 如直接引语部分的谓语动词是come,在变为间接引语时要改为go。例如:

Mr Lu said, "I'll come here on time." → Mr Lu said he would go there on time.

二、变时态

如果主句的时态是一般过去时,从句的时态则应是与主句时态相应的过去时态。例如:

Millie said to me, "I'm writing a letter." → Millie told me she was writing a letter.

三、变代词

1. 直接引语变为间接引语时,引语中的第一人称与主句的主语一致,第二人称与主句的宾语一致,第三人称保持不变。例如:

He said to me, "I've left my book in your bedroom."
→ He told me he had left his book in my bedroom.

2. 直接引语变为间接引语时,指示代词的变化为: this → that, these → those。例如:

"Why did you buy these books?" he asked me.
→ He asked me why I had bought those books.

四、变状语

直接引语变为间接引语时,时间状语变化为: ago → before, now → then, tonight → that night, yesterday → the day before, next week → the next week, tomorrow → the next / following day等,地点状语的变化为:here → there。例如:

"What did you come here for yesterday?" the boss said to the young man.
 →The boss asked the young man what he had gone there for the day before.

五、变语序

直接引语变为间接引语时,要将原直接引语中的一般疑问句和特殊疑问句中的疑问语序变为陈述语序。例如:

The teacher asked the little boy, "How old are you?"
→ The teacher asked the little boy how old he was.

六、变否定形式

如直接引语是否定祈使句,变为间接引语时,要将原句中的don't改为not或never。另外,直接引语部分是祈使句,变为间接引语时,其主句谓语动词“said to”可变为asked、told等动词。例如:

"Don't make any noise," the teacher said to the students.
→ The teacher asked the students not /never to make any noise.

在了解以上六种变化的基础上,同学们还要掌握“三加”的有关知识     

一、加不定式符号to

直接引语若是祈使句变为间接引语时,在动词原形前加上不定式符号to。例如:

"Give my love to your parents", she said to me.
→ She asked me to give her love to my parents.

二、加引导词if或whether

接引语若为一般疑问句、选择疑问句或反意疑问句,变为间接引语时,要加上引导词if或whether。例如:

I asked Kate, "Did you enjoy the movie?"
→ I asked Kate if / whether she enjoyed the movie.

三、加引导词that

直接引语是陈述句,变为间接引语时,要加上引导词that。(注:在口语中也可省略that)。例如:

The old man said, "I'm very interested in what you said."
→ The old man said that he was very interested in what I had said.

外,同学们还要了解直接引语在转变为间接引语时,引语部分的时态“三不变”的情况

一、若主句的谓语动词是一般现在时或一般将来时,引语的时态无须变化。

Mr Wang often says, "I'll come and see you."
→Mr Wang often says that he will go and see me."
She will say, "I'll do it by myself." → She will say she will do it by herself.

二、若直接引语中叙述的是科学真理、客观事实、格言等,变为间接引语时,时态无须变化。

The teacher said, "Light travels much faster than sound."
→ The teacher said light travels much faster than sound.

三、若直接引语部分所述内容是真的,转化为间接引语时,时态也无须变化。

The little boy said, "I love my mother very much."
→ The little boy said he loves his mother very much.

总之,引语之间的转化所涉及的内容广而杂。同学们学习该知识点时一定要抓住要害,形成知识网络,这样才能真正地掌握好它。

做做下面的习题,检测一下,看看这两种引语的用法你是否掌握了。

A) 将下列句子由直接引语变为间接引语。
1. "I am very happy to visit your factory," he said.                
2. "He was here a few weeks ago, and he came again yesterday." she said.

                         
                                     
3. She said to me, "Will you go with me?"                                
4. He said, "What do you think of the novel?"                                 
B) 填空完成间接引语,每空填一词。
5. Lana said, "I visited Australia last year."
 Lana said that                Australia               .
6. Marcia asked Eve, "Are you from America?"
 Marcia asked Eve               from America.
7. He said, "What are you doing over here?"
 He asked                 doing over     .
C) 单项选择,选择最佳答案。
1. "Don't worry about me," she      her sister.
 A. said to  B. talked    C. thanked to D. spoke
2. "      help me with my English?" she said.
 A. Shall we  B. Do you    C. Could you  D. Might you
3. She told me      a noise in the hall.
 A. don't make  B. not to make    C. make not to  D. to make not
4. Simon        his dog to lie down under the big tree.
 A. made  B. had    C. finished  D. ordered
5. His father asked the boy, "     are     doing this for?"
 A. What, you  B. Which, you    C. Where, we  D. Why, we


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